Java Operators

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Java Operators

Operators are used to perform operations on variables and values.

In the example below, we use the + operator to add together two values:

Although the + operator is often used to add together two values, like in the example above, it can also be used to add together a variable and a value, or a variable and another variable:

Example

int sum1 = 100 + 50; // 150 (100 + 50) int sum2 = sum1 + 250; // 400 (150 + 250) int sum3 = sum2 + sum2; // 800 (400 + 400)

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Java divides the operators into the following groups:

  • Arithmetic operators
  • Assignment operators
  • Comparison operators
  • Logical operators
  • Bitwise operators

Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic operators are used to perform common mathematical operations.

Operator Name Description Example Try it
+ Addition Adds together two values x + y Try it »
Subtraction Subtracts one value from another x – y Try it »
* Multiplication Multiplies two values x * y Try it »
/ Division Divides one value by another x / y Try it »
% Modulus Returns the division remainder x % y Try it »
++ Increment Increases the value of a variable by 1 ++x Try it »
Decrement Decreases the value of a variable by 1 –x Try it »

Java Assignment Operators

Assignment operators are used to assign values to variables.

In the example below, we use the assignment operator (=) to assign the value 10 to a variable called x:

The addition assignment operator (+=) adds a value to a variable:

A list of all assignment operators:

Java Comparison Operators

Comparison operators are used to compare two values:

Operator Name Example Try it
== Equal to x == y Try it »
!= Not equal x != y Try it »
> Greater than x > y Try it »
Less than x Try it »
>= Greater than or equal to x >= y Try it »
Less than or equal to x Try it »

Java Logical Operators

Logical operators are used to determine the logic between variables or values:

Operator Name Description Example Try it
&&  Logical and Returns true if both statements are true x Try it »
||  Logical or Returns true if one of the statements is true x Try it »
! Logical not Reverse the result, returns false if the result is true !(x Try it »

Java Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operators are used to perform binary logic with the bits of an integer or long integer.

Operator Description Example Same as Result Decimal
& AND – Sets each bit to 1 if both bits are 1 5 & 1 0101 & 0001 0001  1
| OR – Sets each bit to 1 if any of the two bits is 1 5 | 1 0101 | 0001 0101  5
~ NOT – Inverts all the bits ~ 5  ~0101 1010  10
^ XOR – Sets each bit to 1 if only one of the two bits is 1 5 ^ 1 0101 ^ 0001 0100  4
Zero-fill left shift – Shift left by pushing zeroes in from the right and letting the leftmost bits fall off 9 1001 0010 2
>> Signed right shift – Shift right by pushing copies of the leftmost bit in from the left and letting the rightmost bits fall off 9 >> 1 1001 >> 1 1100 12
>>> Zero-fill right shift – Shift right by pushing zeroes in from the left and letting the rightmost bits fall off 9 >>> 1 1001 >>> 1 0100 4

Note: The Bitwise examples above use 4-bit unsigned examples, but Java uses 32-bit signed integers and 64-bit signed long integers. Because of this, in Java, ~5 will not return 10. It will return -6. ~00000000000000000000000000000101 will return 11111111111111111111111111111010

In Java, 9 >> 1 will not return 12. It will return 4. 00000000000000000000000000001001 >> 1 will return 00000000000000000000000000000100

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